A movement that will remove a limb or a limb segment from the medial line of the body.

Muscles are said to be abductors when they allow the upper or lower limbs to move their extremity (hands or feet) away from the median axis of the body.

Example: the deltoid muscle (deltoidus) contracts by pulling the arm away from the trunk. It is therefore an abductor muscle.



The acromion is a triangular and flat part of the scapula. As it extends the spine of the scapula outwards, the acromion is very easily palpable under the skin, which makes it a bone marker of the shoulder.  

The acromioclavicular joint brings the acromion into contact with the clavicle.

The lateral edge of the acromion allows its insertion into the middle part of the deltoid muscle (deltoideus). Behind its medial edge is attached the trapezius muscle.

Image: Essential Anatomy 5


Opposite movement to Abduction.

Adduction is related to the activity of some muscles that bring closer to the median plan of the body a limb or a limb segment which had been drawn away from it.


“Alicaments" are food that, beyond its nutritional potential, possess (or are said to possess) curative or preventive properties and virtues.

The word "alicament" might therefore include food of animal origin and organically produced plants, fruits and vegetables that are recognised as having intrinsic therapeutic properties. 

For some people, this word may also refer either to an element that has its origins in plants or animals and has been genetically modified to make it therapeutically active, or to a food in its basic form and to which a medicinal substance was added.


An aneurysm is an anatomical anomaly of a blood vessel. It takes the form of a more or less significant dilation of the vascular wall. This structural anomaly results from a weakness in the structure of the tissues that make up the vessel wall.

The major risk of an aneurysm is that it codes under the pressure of the blood that flows inside. This is referred to as a “ruptured aneurysm”, which is an absolute emergency for the person who is affected by it. The hole that was consequently created in the vessel indeed causes internal bleeding.

Most of the time, aneurysms exist in the body without causing any specific problem. It is therefore difficult to diagnose them.

Sometimes, the dilation presses against the surrounding tissues and causes these discomforts, such as neurological disorders. Investigating the causes of these problems leads doctors to discover the aneurysm involved and to treat it, mainly with surgery.


It is a malformation which mostly takes the form of a dilation of vascular system structures that can affect arteries, capillaries, veins and lymphatic vessels. Cherry angioma is most often congenital and benign. It can appear in childhood and even in adulthood. In the same way, it can sometimes recede or even disappear.

Their shape is most of the time irregular and their size is very variable. Their color varies in different shades of red.

The fragile structure of angiomas makes them a local contraindication to "Well-being" massage techniques.

Pelvic anterversion

Anteversion is a movement of the iliac bones and of the sacrum. During this movement, the lumbar spine accentuates its lordosis and the lumbar arch visually increases.

During this movement, the pubis mainly moves downwards, the plateau of the first sacral vertebra evolves vertically.

This position is often associated with an asthenic attitude, which means the attitude of a person who is exhausted or has no energy.



Bacteria are incredibly diverse, and researchers discover new ones on a very regular basis. They can be found in any environment. They are incredibly adaptable and can even be found in the most extreme places such as in hot, salty and sulphurous water sources on the seabed.

A bacterium is a microorganism composed of a single cell with no nucleus. Bacteria are classified as prokaryotes. They have a genetic code consisting of DNA with a single chromosome.

We live along with billions of bacteria inside of us, especially in our digestive tract. These bacteria help our body function.

On the other hand, some bacteria can cause diseases in humans. They are said to be pathogenic.

These bacterial infections can be serious and even fatal. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish a bacterial infection from a viral disease. Unlike viral diseases, bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics.

The problem is that their tremendous adaptability and their genetic material also allow them to mutate and become resistant to some antibiotics. They are said to become antibiotic-resistant, which causes very serious problems in treating the conditions they trigger.

Bacteria are widely used by science and industry. 


In Spa and Institutes, perfect hygiene of the installations, and especially that of wet areas, is essential to prevent the proliferation of potentially pathogenic bacteria.


With this "ite" ending, it is easy to understand that "colitis" indicates a state of inflammation of the colon.

Most of the time, it is an inflammation known as functional inflammation. It can be more or less chronic.

It results in unpleasant, even painful bloating and in intestinal gas.

It can alternately come along with episodes of diarrhoea and constipation.


The most severe cases are often a result of true colon pathologies such as Crohn's disease or hemorrhagic rectocolitis.


Contracture is a state of , more or less intense contraction, more or less intense, of a muscle without that happens with no voluntary stimulation. The contraction is therefore self-sustaining.

A contracture may result from an intense, repeated or long-lasting term sporting activity.

Contractures can also be linked related to body positions held for a long time. This is the case, for example, for people with an office sedentary professional activity in the office (such as those sitting in front of a computer, for example). Stress is an aggravating factor, as is poor hydration.

This muscle tension is most often painful. Wellness and massage professionals meet many people who have suffer from painful contractures, especially in the neck and back. The most suitable appropriate massage techniques to eliminate contractures are deep sliding pressures, pumping and vibration. Reflex techniques can also and in some cases give good resultsresult in positive outcomes.

Contractures regress decline with massage but alsoas well as with heat, rehydration, good oxygenation and rest.

Drugs called known as muscle relaxants are sometimes needed.



A muscle cramp is a sudden, involuntary, uncontrollable, intense and prolonged contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Often painful, a cramp usually gives way in a few minutes but the pain may persist for longer. 
A cramp can occur during exercise, over a recovery time, at rest and even in sleep. They preferentially affect the lower limbs.
The onset of a cramp combines several factors: vascular, metabolic, postural, etc. Hydration also plays an important role. They are also found in certain diseases such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis, for example.

If a deficiency exists in vitamin B1, B5 or B6, as well as in magnesium, calcium and potassium, it can be compensated by food supplements or by an adapted diet. On medical advice.

Massage is one of the ways to break a cramp, but also to prevent it in part, by releasing toxins from the tissues and improving the infusion through muscle blood. Advice on hydration at rest, before and after physical exercise is also very important. 


The cuticle is a small layer of skin that covers the nail matrix.

It has a protective purpose. Pushing it back allows the nail to extend, and also to allow it to grow faster. It is preferable to push back the cuticle rather than to cut it in order to promote its role in supporting the nail and in protecting it against external aggressions, including microbial ones.



This is a skin condition that is part of the pityriasis eczematids. 

Darts are skin lesions that can appear on any part of the body but are mainly present on the face (cheeks, chin or around the lips). They form small, often pinkish or even red patches that flake off. They can sometimes have a floury appearance.

The causes can be due to a microbe or a fungus, it is not possible to say whether it is a fungal infection.

Darts occur more easily in stressed people. They tend to whiten when exposed to the sun. 

In most cases, the scars recede in a few days or even within some weeks.


The situation will improve faster by using hypoallergenic moisturizing products.



The deltoid muscle (deltoideus) shapes the relief of the shoulder.

It consists of three parts that meet on the humerus.  The muscle inserts onto the arm right under the skin, which can sometimes make it quite sensitive. Massaging this insertion onto the humerus is very helpful for relaxing the muscle but it shall be done very gently.

At the insertion point, circular punctiform massage techniques or "sanding" are very effective. On a muscular body, deep sliding pressure and kneading techniques enable good muscle relaxation.

When contracting, the deltoid muscle causes an overall abduction of the upper limb. 


Learn more about it

The Deltoideus muscle is made up of three parts, also called muscle bundles:

- an anterior bundle that attaches to the clavicle in its medial part;

- a medium bundle that attaches to the acromion of the shoulder blade;

- a posterior bundle that attaches to the shoulder blade spine.

The anterior bundle also participates in the flexion and internal rotation of the arm. The posterior bundle contributes to the arm external rotation and extension.

Image Essential Anatomy


Massage technique.

What is most often referred to as Effleurage is the technique of coming into contact during a massage. Although this gentle and enveloping technique is definitely of the highest importance during the first contact with the customer, it is not only used for this purpose.

This treatment time is also a way to assess skin temperature in search of "hot" and potentially inflammatory areas. It also makes it possible to detect any so-called "oily" areas that may suggest some underlying tissue suffering.

As a reminder, professionals use the back of their hand to better assess a temperature.

Effleurage will therefore be performed with the backs of the hands first and then with the palms of both hands used together or separately and alternately. Forearms can be used in a second phase.

The movement must be very ample and have no particular direction and a slow speed. Pressure shall be light, constant and shall not pull the skin onto the subcutaneous tissue.

We will of course avoid any too light a contact  as it might feel unpleasant. Movements shall be repeated to cover the entire surface which is to be massaged. This technique shall awaken sensitivity and prepare for other techniques.

Effleurage also makes it possible to link the different manoeuvres used during the massage.




Progressive, frequent and very painful gynaecological disorder.

Complex disease, the origins of which are still not well understood and which is frequently diagnosed late (10 to 15% of women of childbearing age).

It results in the migration and implantation of parts of the lining of the uterus outside it (into the bowel, into ovaries or, for example, into the bladder). Due to hormonal variations during the cycle, those pieces continue to swell and cause intense pain


The episclera is what is called, the "White of the eye". It is a membrane located under the conjunctiva, very rich in blood vessels.

Episcleritis is a mild, but unpleasant condition that is most common in young women. It manifests itself by vasodilation of the superficial vessels, causing partial or total redness of the white part of the eye and increased tear production.

People with the disease are sensitive to light and sudden changes in brightness. 

Spa and Beauty professionals are exposed to this problem. One of the reasons is the change in light exposure between the cabin and the traffic areas, but also the ambient heat that can dry out the eye.

There is no specific treatment for episcleritis and prevention is the best solution with drops of physiological fluid that moisten the eye. If the problem persists, consult an ophthalmologist.