Fat / Brown fat

Such fat is mostly present in hibernating mammals such as bears and marmots. 

It is however also observed in human being – or rather... in little human beings! Its presence in adults is indeed controversial.

Both the shape and the biological structure of "brown" adipocytes differ from their "white" neighbours.

These brown fat cells have a central nucleus, many mitochondria (the cell's energy plants). They also have lots of small vacuoles filled with fat.

Their brown colour comes from the intense work of mitochondria, which abundantly oxidise fatty acids by consuming a lot of oxygen, hence the strong presence of oxidised elements that give the cell its colour.

Homeostasis

The concept of homeostasis refers to the ability of a system to hold or to restore the equilibrium state of its internal environment. 

When it comes to a living organism such as the human body, homeostasis is its ability to maintain its vital signs within values that are compatible with life and good health. These signs include body temperature, heart rate, blood sugar and blood pressure.

If you make a physical effort, for example a one-hour massage, your body will undergo changes. Your body temperature will increase as a result of muscular efforts, and so will your heart rate. You will consume glucose to nourish your muscles, etc. During the massage, your "internal environment" will adapt and provide you with the strength to perform this massage without endangering your health.

Once your massage is over, your body will return to its equilibrium state thanks to homeostasis. 

The concept of homeostasis was first introduced by doctor Claude Bernard (a French doctor and physiologist) in 1866.

This self-regulatory capacity is sometimes exceeded because the body has, for example, undergone too much effort. In such cases, the body does not necessarily have the resources to recover its balance. This can lead to diseases or accidents (e. g. a heart attack).

 
 

Hyperemia

This word has two possible spellings: with or without "h".

Hyperemia (or hyperemia) is an influx and accumulation of blood in a part of the body. This amount of blood causes and is associated with dilation of the blood vessels. This is usually a normal phenomenon, in relation to the increase in the activity of an organ. It persists for as long as necessary for this activity, then decreases.

Hyperemia is called "functional" when it is related to a natural phenomenon, such as erection, for example.

But there is also a hyperemia called "reactive", when it follows an inflammation, a wound, a trauma or a disease. 

Inflammation

An inflammation is a set of defence mechanisms that the body uses to react to what it considers to be an aggression.

The putpose of the inflammatory reaction is to recognise and identify the "aggressor".  The aim of such reaction is to destroy it and to eliminate it out to the body.

Many elements or substances can trigger an inflammatory reaction in someone: microbes, viruses, foreign bodies, various substances, but also after a trauma, etc.

The mechanism of an inflammatory reaction includes several steps, which can be very complex. It always begins with a phase of " reconnaissance ". Then, it will involve the processes adapted to the type of aggression recognized. These processes can be very complex.

If the body has the necessary resources to fight and defeat the " enemy ", the inflammatory reaction will overcome it. Once the opponent is eliminated, everything returns to normal and the body returns to its initial state (homeostasis).

Sometimes the body even recognizes as aggressive a substance normally present in the body. 

It is also possible that the reaction to the aggression may be disproportionate. The defense mechanism gets carried away and persists well beyond what is necessary. This can be called a chronic inflammatory reaction.

 

Insomnia

Insomnia is characterized by difficulty in getting to sleep despite fatigue, by frequent waking up at night and most often by waking up very early in the morning.

Fatigue will gradually develop in the affected person causing alertness and concentration disorders during the day, irritability and loss of physical and intellectual performance. 

Insomnia is often self-sustaining due to anxiety as the night approaches, with the person fearing the time to go to bed.

It is noted that this problem affects women a little more than men for reasons that may be related to hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle or at the time of the onset of menopause.

Excessive consumption of caffeine and theine during the day (or after 4pm) can trigger or increase the problem. This is also the case with evening smoking and the consumption of mint, cola or taurine drinks.

Stress management techniques such as relaxation or meditation, but also stretching and yoga can help to solve or reduce the problem.